Searching for seahorses on the Danajon Bank, Philippines. Photo by Jonathan Anticamara / Project Seahorse

Our Seahorse Projects

Our key contributions on seahorse taxonomy, life history, ecology and conservation, organised by geography.

Projects on seahorses and protected areas, seahorse fisheries and seahorse trade can be found on the respective Our Projects pages. A full list of Project Seahorse resources can be found here.

Global

Woodall, L.C., F. Otero-Ferrer, M. Correia, J.M., Curtis, N. Garrick-Maidment, P.W. Shaw and H.J. Koldewey. 2018. A synthesis of European seahorse taxonomy, population structure, and habitat use as a basis for assessment, monitoring and conservationMarine Biology 165(1):19.

Lourie, S.A., R.A. Pollom and S.J. Foster. 2016. A global revision of the Seahorses Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes): Taxonomy and biogeography with recommendations for further research. Zootaxa 4146(1):1-66.

Aylesworth, L., J.M. Lawson, P. Laksanawimol, P. Ferber and T.L. Loh. 2016. New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei in Southeast Asia lead to updates in range, habitat and threats. Journal of Fish Biology 88(4): 1620-1630.

Woodall, L.C., H.J. Koldewey, J.T. Boehm and P.W. Shaw. 2015. Past and present drivers of population structure in a small coastal fish, the European long snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. Conservation Genetics 16(5):1139-53.

Woodall, L.C., B. Zimmerman, R. Jones, P. Shaw and H.J. Koldewey. 2012. Partial fin-clipping as an effective tool for tissue sampling in seahorses, Hippocampus spp. Journal of the Marine Biological Association. 92(6):1427-1432.

Woodall, L.C., H.J. Koldewey and P.W. Shaw. 2011. Historical and contemporary population genetic connectivity of the European short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus and implications for management. Journal of Fish Biology 78(6):1738-1756.

Woodall, L.C., H.J. Koldewey, S.V. Santos and PW Shaw. 2009. First occurrence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus in the eastern Atlantic OceanJournal of Fish Biology 75(6):1505-1512.

Lourie, S.A. and R.H. Kuiter. 2008. Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus)Zootaxa 1963(1):54-68.

Lourie, S.A., S.J. Foster, E.W.T. Cooper and A.C.J. Vincent. 2004. A Guide to the Identification of Seahorses.  CITES Technical Manual. ISBN 0953469301. Now superseded by Lourie et al. 2017.

Lourie, S.A., D.M. Green and A.C.J.Vincent. 2005.  Dispersal, habitat differences and comparative phylogeography of Southeast Asian seahorses (Syngnathidae: Hippocampus). Molecular Ecology 14:1073-1094.

Teske, P.R., H. Hamilton, P.J. Palsbøll, C.K. Choo, H. Gabr, S.A. Lourie, M. Santos,  A. Sreepada, M.I. Cherry and C.A. Matthee. 2005. Molecular evidence for long-distance colonization in an Indo-Pacific seahorse lineage. Marine Ecology Progress Series 286:249-260.

Casey, S.P., H.J. Hall, H.F. Stanley and A.C.J. Vincent. 2004. The origin and evolution of seahorses (genus Hippocampus): a phylogenetic study using the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30:261–272.

Lourie, S.A. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2004. A marine fish follows Wallace’s Line: the phylogeography of the three-spot seahorse (Hippocampus trimaculatus, Syngnathidae, Teleostei) in Southeast Asia. Journal of Biogeography 31(12):1975-1985.

Lourie, S.A. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2004. Using biogeography to help set priorities in marine conservation. Conservation Biology 18(4):1004-1020.

Manning, C.G., S.J. Foster and A.C.J. Vincent. 2019. A review of the diets and feeding behaviours of a family of biologically diverse marine fishes (Family Syngnathidae). Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 29(1) 2:197–221.

Zhang, X. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2019. Using cumulative‐human‐impact models to reveal global threat patterns for seahorses. Conservation Biology 33(6):1380-1391.

Zhang, X. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2018. Predicting distributions, habitat preferences and associated conservation implications for a genus of rare fishes, seahorses. Diversity and Distributions 24(7):1005-1017.

Woodall, L.C., F. Otero-Ferrer, M. Correia, J.M., Curtis, N. Garrick-Maidment, P.W. Shaw and H.J. Koldewey. 2018. A synthesis of European seahorse taxonomy, population structure, and habitat use as a basis for assessment, monitoring and conservation. Marine Biology 165(1):19.

Kleiber D., L.K. Blight, I.R. Caldwell and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. The importance of seahorses and pipefishes in the diet of marine animals. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 21(2):205-223.

Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2004. Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. Journal of Fish Biology 65:1-61.

Van Look, K.J., B. Dzyuba, A. Cliffe, H.J. Koldewey and W.V. Holt. 2007. Dimorphic sperm and the unlikely route to fertilisation in the yellow seahorse. Journal of Experimental Biology 210(3):432-437.

Curtis, J.M. 2006. Visible implant elastomer color determination, tag visibility, and tag loss: potential sources of error for mark–recapture studies. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 26(2):327-337. https://doi.org/10.1577/M05-099.1

Dzyuba, B., K.J. Van Look, A. Cliffe, H.J. Koldewey and W.V. Holt. 2006. Effect of parental age and associated size on fecundity, growth and survival in the yellow seahorse Hippocampus kudaJournal of Experimental Biology 209(16):3055-3061.

Wilson, A.B., I. Ahnesjö, A.C.J. Vincent and A. Meyer. 2003.  The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae). Evolution 57(6):1374-1386.

Wilson, A.B., A.C.J. Vincent, I. Ahnesjö and A. Meyer. 2001. Male pregnancy in seahorses and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae): Rapid diversification of the paternal brood pouch inferred from a molecular phylogeny. Journal of Heredity 92:159-166.

Wilson, M.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2000. Preliminary success in closing the life cycle of exploited seahorse species, Hippocampus spp, in captivity. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 2:179-196.

Vincent, A.C.J. 1995. A role for daily greetings in maintaining seahorse pair bonds. Animal Behaviour 49:258-260.

Vincent, A.C.J. 1994. Seahorses exhibit conventional sex roles in mating competition, despite male pregnancy. Behaviour 128:135-151.

Vincent, A.C.J. 1994. Operational sex ratios in seahorses. Behaviour 128:153-167.

Vincent, A.C.J., I. Ahnesjö, A. Berglund and G. Rosenqvist. 1992. Pipefishes and seahorses: are they all sex role reversed? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7:237-241.

Vincent, A.C.J. and R. Clifton-Hadley. 1989. Parasitic infection of the seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) – a case report. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 25(3):404-406.

Pollom, R.A., G.M. Ralph, C.M. Pollock and A.C.J. Vincent. 2021. Global extinction risk for seahorses, pipefishes and their near relatives (Syngnathiformes). Oryx.

Vincent, A.C.J., S.J. Foster and H.J. Koldewey. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78(6):1681-1724.

Morgan, S.K. and H.M. Panes. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 (Syngnathidae)Environmental Biology of Fishes 82(1):21-22.

Morgan, S.K. and S.A. Lourie. 2006. Threatened Fishes of the World: Hippocampus comes Cantor 1850 (Syngnathidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 75(3): 311-313.

(See also Our MPA, Fisheries and Trade Projects)

Pollom, R.A., G.M. Ralph, C.M. Pollock and A.C.J. Vincent. 2021. Global extinction risk for seahorses, pipefishes and their near relatives (Syngnathiformes). Oryx.

Wilson, A.B., I. Ahnesjö, A.C.J. Vincent and A. Meyer. 2003.  The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae). Evolution 57(6):1374-1386.

Wilson, A.B., A.C.J. Vincent, I. Ahnesjö and A. Meyer. 2001. Male pregnancy in seahorses and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae): Rapid diversification of the paternal brood pouch inferred from a molecular phylogeny. Journal of Heredity 92:159-166.

Vincent, A.C.J., A. Berglund and I. Ahnesjö. 1995. Reproductive ecology of five pipefish species in one eelgrass meadow.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 44:347-361.

Vincent, A.C.J., I. Ahnesjö and A. Berglund. 1994. Operational sex ratios and behavioral sex differences in a pipefish population. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 34:435-442.

Vincent, A.C.J., I. Ahnesjö, A. Berglund and G. Rosenqvist. 1992. Pipefishes and seahorses: are they all sex role reversed? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7:237-241.

Australia

Manning, C.G., S.J. Foster and A.C.J. Vincent. 2019. A review of the diets and feeding behaviours of a family of biologically diverse marine fishes (Family Syngnathidae). Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries.

Manning, C., Foster, S., Harasti, D and A.C.J. Vincent. 2018. A holistic investigation of the ecological correlates of abundance and body size for the endangered White’s seahorse Hippocampus whitei. Journal of Fish Biology 93:649-663.

Wilson, A.B. and K.M. Martin‐Smith. 2007. Genetic monogamy despite social promiscuity in the pot‐bellied seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis)Molecular Ecology 16(11):2345-2352.

Vincent, A.C.J., K.L. Evans and D. Marsden. 2005. Home range behaviour of the monogamous Australian seahorse, Hippocampus whitei. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72:1-12.

Moreau, M.-A. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2004. Social structure and space use in a wild population of the Australian short-headed seahorse Hippocampus breviceps Peters 1869. Marine and Freshwater Research 55:231-239.

Vincent, A.C.J., A.D. Marsden, K.L. Evans and L.S. Sadler. 2004.  Temporal and spatial opportunities for polygamy in a monogamous seahorse, Hippocampus whitei. Behaviour 141:141-156.

Vincent, A.C.J. and B.G. Giles. 2003. Correlates of reproductive success in a wild population of Hippocampus whitei.  Journal of Fish Biology 63(2):344-355.

Vincent, A.C.J. and L.M. Sadler. 1995. Faithful pair bonds in wild seahorses, Hippocampus whitei. Animal Behaviour 50:1557-1569.

Martin-Smith, K.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005.  Seahorse declines in the Derwent estuary, Tasmania in the absence of fishing pressure. Biological Conservation 123: 533-545.

Woods, C.M. and K.M. Martin-Smith. 2004. Visible implant fluorescent elastomer tagging of the big-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalisFisheries research 66(2):363-371.

China

Malaysia

Lawson, J.M., S.J. Foster, A.C.O. Lim, V.C. Chong and A.C.J. Vincent. 2015. Novel life-history data for threatened seahorses provide insight into fishery effects. Journal of Fish Biology 86(1):1-15.

Yip, M. Y., A.C.O. Lim, V.C. Chong, J.M. Lawson and S.J. Foster. 2015. Food and feeding habits of the seahorses Hippocampus spinosissimus and Hippocampus trimaculatus (Malaysia). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 95(5):1033-1040.

Philippines

Morgan, S.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2007. The ontogeny of habitat associations in the tropical Tiger Tail seahorse (Hippocampus comes). Journal of Fish Biology 71:701-724.

Job, S., D. Buu and A. Vincent. 2006. Growth and survival of the Tiger Tail Seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 37(3):322-327.

Perante, N.C., M.G. Pajaro, J.J. Meeuwig and A.C.J. Vincent. 2002. Biology of a seahorse species, Hippocampus comes in the central Philippines. Journal of Fish Biology 60:821-837.

Morgan, S.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2013. Life-history reference points for management of an exploited tropical seahorse. Marine & Freshwater Research 64(3):185-200.

Curtis, J.M.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2008. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade management options for threatened marine fishes. Conservation Biology 22(5):1225-1232.

Portugal

Palma, J., M. Magalhães, M. Correia and J.P. Andrade. 2019. Effects of anthropogenic noise as a source of acoustic stress in wild populations of Hippocampus guttulatus in the Ria Formosa, south Portugal. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 29(5):751-759.

Correia, M., H.J. Koldewey, J.P. Andrade and J. Palma. 2015. Effects of artificial holdfast units on seahorse density in the Ria Formosa lagoon, Portugal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 471:1-7.

Correia, M., J. Palma, H.J. Koldewey and J.P. Andrade. 2013. Can artificial holdfast units work as a habitat restoration tool for long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier)? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 448:258-264.

Correia, M., I.R. Caldwell, H.J. Koldewey, J.P. Andrade and J. Palma. 2015. Seahorse (Hippocampinae) population fluctuations in the Ria Formosa Lagoon, south Portugal. Journal of Fish Biology 87(3):679-690.

Caldwell, I.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2012. Revisiting two sympatric European seahorse species: Apparent decline in the absence of exploitation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22(4):427-435.

Curtis, J.M., J. Ribeiro, K. Erzini, and A.C.J. Vincent. 2007. A conservation tradeoff? Interspecific differences in seahorse responses to experimental changes in fishing effort. Aquatic Conservation 17:468-484.

Correia, M., H.J. Koldewey, J.P. Andrade and J. Palma. 2016. A novel underwater visual census: Seahorse population survey as a case study. Regional Studies in Marine Science 8(3):454-458.

Correia, M., J. Palma, H.J. Koldewey and J.P. Andrade. 2014. The use of a non-invasive tool for capture-recapture studies on a seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus population. Journal of Fish Biology 84(4):872-884.

Caldwell, I.R., M. Correia, J. Palma and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Advances in tagging syngnathids with effects of dummy tags on behaviour of Hippocampus guttulatus.  Journal of Fish Biology 78(6):1769-1785.

Curtis, J.M. 2007. Validation of a method for estimating realized annual fecundity in a multiple spawner, the long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus), using underwater visual censusFishery Bulletin 105(3):327-337.

Senegal

Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M, K. West, I.S. Boiro and A.C.J. Vincent. 2015. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade. Journal of Fish Biology 88(2):751-759.

South Africa

Bell, E.M., J.F. Lockyear, J.M. Schulz, A.D. Marsden and A.C.J. Vincent. 2003. First field studies of an Endangered South African seahorse, Hippocampus capensis. Environmental Biology of Fishes 67:35-46.

Thailand

Aylesworth, L., T.L. Loh, W. Rongrongmuang and A.C.J. Vincent. 2017. Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) as a case study for locating cryptic and data-poor marine fishes for conservation. Animal Conservation 20(5):444-454.

Aylesworth, L., R. Phoonsawat, P. Suvanachai and A.C.J. Vincent. 2017. Generating spatial data for marine conservation and management. Biodiversity & Conservation 26(2):383-399.

Loh, T.L., A. Tewfik, L. Aylesworth and R. Phoonsawat. 2016. Species in wildlife trade: socio-economic factors influence seahorse relative abundance in Thailand. Biological Conservation 201:301-308.

United States

Stump, E.S. 2013. Habitat use by seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) in Biscayne National Park, a marine protected area in South Florida, USA. Master of Science dissertation, The University of British Columbia, Canada.

Viet Nam

Lourie, S.A., J.C. Pritchard, S.A. Casey, T.S. Ky, H.J. Hall and A.C.J. Vincent. 1999. The taxonomy of Vietnam’s exploited seahorses (family Syngnathidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66:231-256.