Porcelain crab in a protected area in the Danajon bank, Philippines. Photo by Nick Hill / Project Seahorse

Our Protected Areas Projects

Our key contributions on creating, implementing, monitoring and sustaining marine protected areas, organised by geography.

A full list of Project Seahorse resources can be found here.


Stanton, L.M., Foster, S.J. and Vincent, A.C.J. 2021. Identifying national conservation status, legislation and priorities for syngnathid fishes globally. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 29(2) 43pp.

Zhang, X. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2019. Conservation prioritization for seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) at broad spatial scales considering socioeconomic costs. Biological Conservation 235:79-88.

Vincent, A.C.J., S.J. Foster & H.J. Koldewey. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78(6):1681-1724.

Pajaro, M.G., M. Mulrennan and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Towards an integrated marine protected areas policy: connecting the local to the global. Environment, Development and Sustainability 12(6):945-965.

Molloy, P.P., M. Evanson, A.C. Nellas, J.L. Rist, J.E. Marcus, H.J. Koldewey and A.C.J Vincent. 2013. How much sampling does it take to detect trends in coral-reef habitat using photoquadrat surveys? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 23(6):820-837.

Molloy, P.P., J.A. Anticamara, J.L. Rist and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Frugal conservation: what does it take to detect changes in fish populations? Biological Conservation 143(11):2532-2542.

Saunders, D.K., J.J. Meeuwig and A.C.J. Vincent. 2002. Freshwater protected areas: strategies for conservation.  Conservation Biology 16:31-40.


Ban, N.C., C. Picard and A.C.J. Vincent. 2009. Comparing and integrating community-based and science-based conservation approaches to prioritizing marine areas for protection. Conservation Biology 23(4):899-910.

Ban, N.C, and A.C.J Vincent. 2009. Beyond marine reserves: exploring the approach of selecting areas where fishing is permitted, rather than prohibited. PLoS ONE 4(7):e6258.

Ban, N.C., C. Picard and A.C.J. Vincent. 2008. Moving towards spatial solutions in marine conservation with Indigenous communities. Ecology and Society 13(1):32.

Ban, N.C. and J. Alder. 2008. How wild is the ocean? Assessing the intensity of anthropogenic marine activities in British Columbia, CanadaAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(1):55-85.

Ban, N.C. 2008. Multiple perspectives for envisioning marine protected areas. Doctoral dissertation, The University of British Columbia, Canada.




Yasué, M., A. Nellas and A.C.J Vincent. 2012. Seahorses helped drive creation of marine reserves, so what did these protected areas do for the seahorses?  Environmental Conservation 39(2):183-193.

Marcus, J.E.,  M.A. Samoilys, J.J. Meeuwig, Z. Villongco and A.C.J. Vincent. 2007. Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines, and associated seahorse densities. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:1483-1494.

Hansen, G.J.A., N.C. Ban, M.L. Jones, L. Kaufman, H.M. Panes, M. Yasué, and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Hindsight in marine protected area selection: A comparison of ecological representation arising from opportunistic and systematic approaches. Biological Conservation 144:1866-1875.

Ban, N.C, G.J.A. Hansen, M.L. Jones and A.C.J Vincent. 2009. Systematic marine conservation planning in data-poor regions: socioeconomic data are essential.  Marine Policy 33(5):794-800.

Bayley, D.T., A. Purvis, A.C. Nellas,  M. Arias and H.J. Koldewey. 2020. Measuring the long-term success of small-scale marine protected areas in a Philippine reef fishery. Coral Reefs 1-14.

Anticamara, J.A., D. Zeller and A.C. J. Vincent. 2010. Spatial and temporal variation of abundance, biomass and diversity within marine reserves in the Philippines. Diversity and Distributions 16(4):529-536.

Pajaro, M.G., M.E. Mulrennan, J. Alder and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Developing MPA effectiveness indicators: comparison within and across stakeholder groups and communities. Coastal Management 38(2):122-143.

Yasué, M., L. Kaufman and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Assessing ecological changes in and around marine reserves using community perceptions and biological surveys. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(4):407-418.

Samoilys, M.A., K.M. Martin-Smith, B. Giles, B. Cabrera, J. Anticamara, E.O. Brunio and A.C.J. Vincent. 2007. Effectiveness of five small Philippines’ coral reef reserves for fish populations depends on site-specific factors, particularly enforcement history.  Biological Conservation 136:584-601.

Gillespie, K.M. 2021. Accounting for the other 95% : conservation and assessment of data limited marine invertebrates in the Central Philippines. PhD dissertation. The University of British Columbia.

Gillespie, K.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2019. Marine reserves drive both taxonomic and functional change in coral reef invertebrate communities. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(4):921–938.

Gillespie, K.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2019. Tropical invertebrate response to marine reserves varies with protection duration, habitat type, and exploitation history. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 29(3):511-520.


Caldwell, I.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2012. Revisiting two sympatric European seahorse species: Apparent decline in the absence of exploitation.  Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22(4):427-435.

Curtis, J.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005. Distribution of sympatric seahorse species along a gradient of habitat complexity in a seagrass-dominated community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 291:81-91.

[Updated 6 July 2023]

[Updated 9 June 2021]