Amanda Vincent investigating dried seahorse trade in a market in Beihai, China in 1996. Photo by Amanda Vincent / Project Seahorse

Our Trade Projects

Our key contributions on assessing, regulating – and acting on – legal and illegal trade, organised by geography.

A full list of Project Seahorse resources can be found here.

Global

Foster, S.J., T-C. Kuo, A.K.Y. Wan and A.C.J. Vincent. 2019. Global seahorse trade defies export bans under CITES action and national legislation. Marine Policy 103: 33-41.

Kuo, T-C. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2018. Assessing the changes in international trade of marine fishes under CITES regulations – A case study of seahorses. Marine Policy 88:48–57.

Foster, S.J., S. Wiswedel and A.C.J. Vincent. 2016. Opportunities and challenges for analysis of wildlife trade using CITES data – seahorses as a case study. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 26(1):154-172.

Lam, J.T.L., H.J. Koldewey, M. Yasue and A.C.J. Vincent. 2014. Comparing interview and trade data in assessing changes in the seahorse Hippocampus spp. trade following CITES listing. Oryx 50(1):36-46.

Vincent, A.C.J., S.J. Foster and H.J. Koldewey. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78(6):1681-1724.

Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster. (eds). 2011. Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 181 pp.

Vincent, A.C.J. 1996. The International Trade in Seahorses. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK. vii + 163 pp.

Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2021. Holding governments accountable for their commitments: CITES Review of Significant Trade for a very high-volume taxon. Global Ecology and Conservation 27:e01572.

Maldives, Monaco, Sri Lanka and the United States. 2018. Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) on CITES – a roadmap to success. CoP18 Doc. 72, 15 pp. (prepared by Project Seahorse)

Aylesworth, L., S.J. Foster and A.C.J. Vincent. 2020. Realities of offering advice to governments on CITES. Conservation Biology. 34(3):644-653.

Vincent, A.C.J. and S.J. Foster. 2017. Setting precedent in export regulations for marine fishes with seahorses. Fisheries 42(1):40-43.

Foster, S.J. 2016. Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) and the CITES Review of Significant Trade. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 24(4):48 pp.

IUCN. 2016. Assisting Parties to meet their commitments: CITES Review of significant trade for Seahorses (Hippocampus spp.), a taxon traded in high volumes. Information Document for the 17th Meeting of the CITES Conference of the Parties. CoP17 Inf. 53:10 pp.

IUCN. 2016. Implementation of CITES Appendix II listings for marine fishes. Information Document for the 17th Meeting of the CITES Conference of the Parties. CoP17 Inf. 64:5 pp.

IUCN and FAO. 2016. Simple is good: moving toward pragmatic and effective monitoring to support CITES implementation for marine fishes and invertebrates on Appendix II. Information Document for the 17th Meeting of the CITES Conference of the Parties. CoP17 Inf. 65:7 pp.

Vincent, A.C.J., and J.M. Harris. 2014. Boundless no more. Science 346(6208):420-421. https://bit.ly/33J6HeX

Vincent A.C.J., Y.J. Sadovy, S.L. Fowler and S. Lieberman. 2014. The role of CITES in the conservation of marine fishes subject to international trade. Fish and Fisheries 15(4):563–592.

Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2016. Making Non-Detriment Findings for seahorses – a framework, Version 4.0. Project Seahorse, The Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries (formerly the Fisheries Centre), The University of British Columbia. 72 pp.

Curtis, J.M.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2008. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade management options for threatened marine fishes. Conservation Biology 22(5):1225-1232.

Vincent, A.C.J., Foster, S.J. & H.J. Koldewey. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78(6):1681-1724.

Foster, S.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005. Enhancing sustainability of the international trade in seahorses with a single minimum size limit. Conservation Biology 19:1044-1050.

Koldewey, H.J. and K.M. Martin-Smith. 2010. A global review of seahorse aquaculture. Aquaculture 302:131-152.

Vincent, A.C.J., Foster, S.J. & H.J. Koldewey. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78(6):1681-1724.

Pajaro, M., J.J. Meeuwig, B.G. Giles, and A.C.J. Vincent. 2004. Biology, fishery and trade of sea moths (Pisces: Pegasidae) in the central Philippines. Oryx 38(4):432-438.

Vincent, A.C.J. 1997. Trade in pegasid fishes (sea moths), primarily for traditional Chinese medicine. Oryx 31(3):199-208.

Vincent, A.C.J., and J.M. Harris. 2014. Boundless no more. Science 346(6208):420-421.

Vincent A.C.J., Y.J. Sadovy, S.L. Fowler and S. Lieberman. 2014. The role of CITES in the conservation of marine fishes subject to international trade. Fish and Fisheries 15(4):563–592.

Grey, M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2006. The extent and possible conservation implications of fish use for research, testing, and education in North America. Aquatic Conservation 16:569-578.

Grey, M. A.-M. Blais, B. Hunt and A.C.J. Vincent. 2006. The United States of America’s international trade in fish leather, from a conservation perspective. Environmental Conservation 33(2):100-108.

Hunt, B. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2006. Scale and sustainability of marine bioprospecting for pharmaceuticals. Ambio 35(2):57-64.

Grey, M., A.-M. Blais and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005. Magnitude and trends of marine fish curio imports to the USA. Oryx 39(4):413-420.

European Union

LaFrance, P. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in Europe. p.129-137. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Argentina

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in South America. p. 102-128. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Australia

Martin-Smith, K.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Syngnathid trade in Australia. p.138-165. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Belize

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in Central America. p. 78-101. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Brazil

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in South America. p. 102-128. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America. Environmental Conservation 32(4):305-319.

 

Canada

LaFrance, P. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in the USA and Canada. p.39-56. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan)

Foster, S.J., T-C. Kuo, A.K.Y. Wan and A.C.J. Vincent. 2019. Global seahorse trade defies export bans under CITES action and national legislation. Marine Policy 103: 33-41.

Lam, J.T.L., H.J. Koldewey, M. Yasue and A.C.J. Vincent. 2014. Comparing interview and trade data in assessing changes in the seahorse Hippocampus spp. trade following CITES listing. Oryx 50(1):36-46.

Cook Islands

Martin-Smith, K.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Syngnathid trade in the South Pacific. p.176-181. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Costa Rica

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in Central America. p. 78-101. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Ecuador

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in South America. p. 102-128. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America.  Environmental Conservation 32(4):305-319.

Guatemala

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in Central America. p. 78-101. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Honduras

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in Central America. p. 78-101. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

India

Vaidyanathan, T., X. Zhang, R. Balakrishnan and A.C.J. Vincent. 2021. Catch and trade bans for seahorses can be negated by non‐selective fisheries. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 31(1):43-59.

Vaidyanathan, T. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2021. State of seahorse fisheries in India, nearly two decades after they were banned. Biodiversity and Conservation:1-31.

Perry, A.L., T. Vaidyanathan, B. Giles, M-A. Moreau, C.M. Picco and A.C.J. Vincent. 2020. The catch and trade of seahorses in India pre-ban. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 28(3):55pp.

Kenya

McPherson, J.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in Africa. p.7-38. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Malaysia

Perry, A.L, K.E. Lunn and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Fisheries, large-scale trade and conservation of seahorses in Malaysia and Thailand. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Systems 20(4):464-475.

Mexico

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in Mexico. p. 57-77.  In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America.  Environmental Conservation 32(4):305-319.

Lunn, K.E., M. J. Villanueva Noriega and A.C.J. Vincent. 2008. Souvenirs from the sea: an investigation into the curio trade of echinoderms in Mexico. TRAFFIC Bulletin 22(1):19-32.

Mozambique

McPherson, J.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in Africa. p.7-38. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

New Zealand

Martin-Smith, K.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Syngnathid trade in New Zealand. p.166-175. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Nicaragua

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in Central America. p. 78-101. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Panama

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in Central America. p. 78-101. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America. Environmental Conservation 32(4):305-319.

Peru

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in Central America. p. 78-101. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Baum, J.K. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America. Environmental Conservation 32(4):305-319.

Philippines

Foster, S.J., L.M. Stanton, A.C. Nellas, M.M. Arias and Vincent, A.C.J. 2019. The catch and trade of seahorses in the Philippines post-CITES. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 27(2):45pp.

Pajaro, M.G. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2015. The catch and export of the seahorse trade in the Philippines, pre-CITES. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2015-102, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 33 p.

Curtis, J.M.R. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2008. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade management options for threatened marine fishes. Conservation Biology 22(5):1225-1232.

Senegal

Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M, K. West, I.S. Boiro and A.C.J. Vincent. 2015. An assessment of West African seahorses in fisheries catch and trade. Journal of Fish Biology 88(2):751-759.

South Africa

McPherson, J.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in Africa. p.7-38. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Tanzania

McPherson, J.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in Africa. p.7-38. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

McPherson, J.M. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2004. Assessing East African trade in seahorse species as a basis for conservation under international controls. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 14(5):521-538.

 

Thailand

Kuo, T-C., P. Laksanawimol, L. Aylesworth, S.J. Foster and A.C.J. Vincent. 2018. Changes in the trade of bycatch species corresponding to CITES regulations: the case of dried seahorse trade in Thailand. Biodiversity and Conservation 27(13):3447–3468.

Loh, T.L.,  A. Tewfik, L. Aylesworth and R. Phoonsawat. 2016. Species in wildlife trade: socio-economic factors influence seahorse relative abundance in Thailand. Biological Conservation 201:301-308.

Perry, A.L, K.E. Lunn and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. Fisheries, large-scale trade and conservation of seahorses in Malaysia and Thailand. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Systems 20(4):464-475.

Aylesworth, L., S.J. Foster and A.C.J. Vincent. 2020. Realities of offering advice to governments on CITES. Conservation Biology. 34(3):644-653.

United States

LaFrance, P. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2011. Seahorse trade in the USA and Canada. p.39-56. In: Vincent, A.C.J., B.G. Giles, C.A. Czembor and S.J. Foster (eds.). Trade in seahorses and other syngnathids in countries outside Asia (1998-2001). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(1). Fisheries Centre, The University of British Columbia.

Magera, A.M., Morgan, S., Koldewey, H.J. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2005. The live seahorse trade in Los Angeles. Project Seahorse, Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia. 35 pp

Viet Nam

Foster, S.J., Aylesworth, L., Do, H.H., Bat, N.K., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2017. Seahorse exploitation and trade in Viet Nam. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 25(2): 50pp.

Giles, B.G., S.K. Truong, H.H. Do and A.C.J. Vincent. 2006. The catch and trade of seahorses in Vietnam. Biodiversity and Conservation 15(6):2497-2513.

Meeuwig, J.J., H.H. Do, S.K. Truong, S.D. Job and A.C.J. Vincent. 2006. Quantifying non-target seahorse fisheries in central Vietnam. Fisheries Research 81:149-157.